DEONTIC EXPRESSING MEANS IN ENGLISH AND  VIETNAMESE FAIRY TALES

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I. INTRODUCTION
1. Rationales
Literature which places an emphasis on many topics from human tragedies to tales of the ever-popular search for love is the foundation of life. Literature is said to be a reflection of the real society in which the poor values and rich ones exist, and provide a gateway to teach the readers about life experiences from even the saddest stories to the most joyful ones that will touch their hearts.
In all types of literature, fairy tales not only are considered as a great contribution to the cultural literacy, but they also enlarge a child’s vocabulary, develop his ear for rhythm, and prepare him to enjoy richer, deeper words and stories.  Moreover, a good fairy tale can provide a moral compass, and teach us about love, honor, sacrifice, hope, courage, hard work, justice. Sometimes, being detached from our everyday world, they free our minds to see intangibles with special clarity. One of the joys of fairy tales is their diversity and romantics.
Moreover, in recent years, together with the increasing need for English learning and teaching, great efforts in Vietnam and elsewhere have been made in order to concern on fairy tales as a great tool for teaching English in context and developing children’s cognitive and language skills.
From my own experience as a teacher of English in primary school for many years, I am aware of the fact that children may learn a lot from the characters and conversations in fairy tales. These help them not only connect to their own lives, dreams, anxieties, happiness but develop their imagination as well as how to navigate life and handle problems in communication. This fact is one of the motivations that give me inspirations in my decision to do the research on “Deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales.”
Deontic modality is one important types of modality that cover “a range of semantic notions such as ability, possibility, hypothetically, obligation, and imperatives” (Van der Auwera & Plungian, 1998: 81). Modality, according to Halliday (1985: 86), is “an expression of the speaker’s opinion towards the content of what he is saying, whether he considers it is possible, probable, certain, etc.” Therefore, to study modality and types of modality is very interesting and essential.
Dịch vụ viết thuê Assignment
Dịch vụ viết thuê Assignment
Besides, the research of modality in general and deontic modality in particular has spawned innumerably, namely Palmer (1986, 1994, 2003), Bybee (1994), Lyon (1977), Dixon (1992), Kratzer (1991), etc. In the field of modality of Vietnam, there are famous author such as Nguyen Van Hiep (2001, 2008), Nguyen Hoa (2000), Nguyen Huu Manh and Nguyen Van Co (2000), Vo Dai Quang, who have studied modality in Vietnamese language.
However, no attempt has been carried out to deal with deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales. It is the reason why the author would like to choose this research with the hopes that, to some extents, the study may provide a very small contribution to linguistic studies in general and also to teaching and learning English as a foreign language in particular.
2. Aims and objectives
This research is aimed at finding the similarities and differences of deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales. To gain a proposed aim, the objectives of the research are:
– To study structure features of expressing deontic modality in English and Vietnamese fairy tales.
– To study semantic meanings of expressing deontic modality in English and Vietnamese fairy tales.
3. Research Questions
In order to achieve the aims and objectives of the study, the research questions will be addressed as follows:
1. What are structure features and semantic meanings of deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales?
 2.   What are the similarities and differences of deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales?
4. Scope of the study
The study is limited to investigating written deontic expressions in 30 English and 30 Vietnamese fairy tales in written form and partly from stories books or on the Internet. They were written and collected by many famous English and Vietnamese authors such as Hans Christian Andersen, Grimm Brothers and Nguyễn Đổng Chi, etc.
Palmer (1986) holds the view that deontic modality can be expresses through a number of forms which can be divided into modal auxiliaries, hedge verbs, performative verbs, adverbs, modal adjectives, modal nouns, lexical verbs, particles, modal idioms, expletives, modal conditionals, moods and some prosody feature ( tones, accent, or intonations). However, because of the limitation of time, data, and our own ability, this thesis only is focused on the eight important means of expressing modality except for prosody, modal words, modal idioms, expletives and moods. This investigation is based on theory and classification of Palmer (1986, 2003), Nguyễn Văn Hiệp (2008).
5. Significance of the study
The thesis hopes to contribute to the overall look at modality in general and deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales in particular. The findings of the study, as a result, will contribute to language teaching English and Vietnamese through fairy tales for kids.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Modality is important component of linguistics which consists of syntactic, grammatical, semantic and pragmatics perspectives. The study of modality expressions is a complicated problem.
Bybee (1985) defines modality in broad terms by speaking that modality is what the speaker is doing with the whole proposition. Bybee, Perkin, and Pagliuca (1994) exemplify four types of modality: Epistemic, speaker- oriented, agent- oriented, and subordinating. Palmer (1986) claims that the definition of modality as semantic information associated with the speaker’s attitude or opinion about what is said. It is exciting with note that Bybee (1994) do not use the term “deontic modality”, to the extent that is the speaker that obliges or permits, he uses “ speaker-oriented modality” (p. 179), which was suggested by Palmer (1974) for deontic modality at first. The term “root” or “deontic” is often used for non epistemic modals and it involves such expressions as obligations, permissions and ability.
Up to now, there have been a number of studies on modality done by a lot of English and Vietnamese researchers in the language use in stories and language works. In Vietnamese, there are a lot of reseachers discussing about modality, as for Nguyễn Văn Hiệp (2007)“Một số phạm trù tình thái chủ yếu trong ngôn ngữ”, Võ Đại Quang (2007) “Tình thái trong câu- phát ngôn: Một số vấn đề lí luận cơ bản”, Nguyễn Đình Hòa (1996) “ Vietnamese Verbs”, Đỗ Hữu Huyền (1999) “Modality and modal auxiliaries, a systemic comparison of English and Vietnamese”. In addition, in 2014, Bùi Thị Đào studied on deontic modality expressing means in English and Vietnamese declarative and interrogative sentences.
However, none of them mentioned deontic expressing means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales. Accordingly, it is expected that the findings will be background knowledge for us to have a better insight in expressing deontic means in English and Vietnamese fairy tales.
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III. THE DESIGN-METHODS AND PROCEDURES
1. Research methods
In order to reach the goal of the study, this thesis will be carried out the investigation based on a descriptive method in combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The descriptive method is considered as the main method to explore means of deontic modality in English and Vietnamese basing on theoretical framework .
The qualitative analysis is employed to sort out different means of deontic modality used in English and Vietnamese fairy tales as well as the similarities and differences among those means in English and Vietnamese. The quantitative one is used to point out the frequency of occurrence, increase the level validity and reliability due to calculation and explanation.
2. Data Collection and Analysis
The samples of deontic modality from 30 English and 30 Vietnamese fairy tales will be collected. Based on the theoretical background, the documents will be picked out the examples deontic. This corpus will be used for description and contrastive analysis in terms of stylistic features in fairy tales in the two languages. The result of data’s analysis will be presented by using tables, pie charts or diagrams. The findings of similarities and differences of deontic modality will be given from descriptive and contractive analysis of stylistic devices. The data, then, will be presented in tables which are classified into the fields of deontic modality in English and Vietnamese fairy tales.
3. Research Procedure
The fairy tales will be analyzed and classified to find out the deontic modality. The followings are procedures for data analysis.
– Identifying the deontic modality in the fairy tales.
          – After the data have been analyzed, the results are presented by using the tables, pie charts or diagrams. The findings of the similarities and differences of deontic modality in English and Vietnamese fairy tales will be given from the descriptive analysis of stylistic devices. The data, then, analyzed and presented in table which are classified into the fields of deontic modality in English and Vietnamese.
4. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The thesis consists of 5 main chapters.
o Introduction introduce the study, which includes the rationale, justification, the scope of the study, the research questions, hypothesis, and organization of the study.
o Chapter 1: is the literature review, presents the previous study related to the paper, and the theoretical background of the study in the area.
o Chapter 2: is about the methods and procedures of the study. It will mention the aims, the objectives of the study, then the methodology, the design of the research, data collection, data analysis, and description of the corpus.
o Chapter 3: is the findings and discussion, deals with analyzing, interpreting and finding the features of fairy tales in English and Vietnamese ones from two different views: syntactic features and semantic features.
o Conclusion includes the conclusion and the review of the issues that have been presented, the limitations, and suggestions for further study.
5. PROPOSED OUTLINE OF THE STUDY
INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
2. Aims and objectives
3. Research questions
4. Scope of the study
5. Significance of the study
Chapter 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Historical perspectives of modality and deontic modality
2.2. Definition and different viewpoints of deontic modality
2.3. Linguistic means of deontic modality
Chapter 2: METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research methods
3.2. Data Collection and Analysis
3. 3. Research Procedure
Chapter 3:   FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Modal Auxiliary Verbs in English and Vietnamese.
3.1.1. Syntactic features
3.1.2. Semantic features
3.2. Hedge Verbs in English and Vietnamese
3.2.1 Syntactic features
3.2.2. Semantic features
3.3. Performative Verbs in English and Vietnamese.
3.3.1 Syntactic features
3.3.2 Semantic features
3.4 Modal Adverbs in English and Vietnamese.
3.4.1 Syntactic features
3.4.2 Semantic features
3.5 Modal adjectives in English and Vietnamese.
3.5.1 Syntactic features
3.5.1 Semantic features
3.6 Modal Nouns in English and Vietnamese.
3.6.1 Syntactic features
3.6.2 Semantic features
3.7 Particles in English and Vietnamese.
3.7.1 Syntactic features
3.7.2 Semantic features
3.8 Modal Conditional in English and Vietnamese.
3.8.1 Syntactic features
3.8.2 Semantic features
3.9 Summary
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
1 Conclusion
2 Recommendation
3 Implications
4 Limitation and Suggestions for Further Study
REFERENCES
Bybee, J. (1985). A study of the Relation between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: Pheladelphia: JohnnBejamins.
Bybee, J., Perkin, R., & Pagliuca, W. (1994). The evolution of grammar: tense, aspect and modality in the language of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Đào, B. T. (2014). A study on deontic modality expressing means in English and Vietnamese declarative and interrogative sentences. Doctor of philosophy in Linguistics at Vietnam National University.
Griffiths Patrick. (2006). An Introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics. 22 George Square, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Arnold)
Hiệp, N. V. (2007). Một số phạm trù tình thái chủ yếu trong ngôn ngữ. Tạp chí ngôn ngữ, 8.
Hòa, N. Đ. (1996). Vietnamese Verbs: Chicago III. NTC. Publishing Group.
Huyền, Đ. H. (1999). Modality and modal auxiliaries, a systemic comparison of English and Vietnamese. MA. Thesis.
Palmer, F. R. (1974). The English Verb. London: Longman.
Palmer, F. R. (1986). Mood and Modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Quang, V. Đ. (2007). Tình thái trong câu- phát ngôn: Một số vấn đề lí luận cơ bản. Tạp chí ngôn ngữ.
Van der Auwera & Plungian (1998). Modality’s Semantic Map. Linguistic Typology. Volume 2. Cambridge University Press.
Maria Tatar (Editor ). (1990). The Complete Grimm’s Fairy Tales. W. W. Norton & Company.
Maria Tatar (Editor ). (1998). The Classic Fairy Tales. W. W. Norton & Company.
Jack D. Zipes (Editor). (2000). The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. W. W. Norton & Company
Quốc Khanh- Thanh Bình. (1990). Truyện cổ tích Việt Nam. Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá- Thông tin.
Hoàng Vũ. ( 1994). Truyện cổ dân gian chọn lọc. Nhà xuất bản Thanh Hoá.
Phương Nhi (collector). (2005). Truyện cổ tích Việt Nam chọn lọc: Sự tích trầu cau. Nxb Hồng Đức
Phương Nhi (Colector). (2004). Truyện cổ tích Việt Nam chọn lọc: Sự tích Thánh Gióng. Nxb Hồng Đức.
Nguyễn Đổng Chi. (1960) Kho tàng truyện cổ tích Việt Nam. Nxb Giáo dục.
http://academictips.org/blogs/category/fairy-stories/
http://www.english-for-students.com/Fairytales-Stories-for-Kids.html
http://www.kidsworldfun.com/shortstories.php
http://www.moralstories.org/life/
https://www.vinabook.com/100-truyen-co-tich-hay-nhat-m11i50026-p50026.html
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