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1. Define motivation and its component
According to Wikipedia, Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation may be intrinsic or extrinsic. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-‐apparent reasons such as altruism, morality, or avoiding mortality.
Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.
It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. For example, you might say that a student is so motivated to get into a psychology program that she spends every night studying.
Components of Motivation:
There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might coast by without much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class.
2. Explain difference among different approaches to motivation (i.e., different motivation theories)
There are different theories of motivation that are viewed in various approaches. The differences in these theories usually lie on how they emphasize biological and/or environmental forces in their attempt to explain the process of motivation. While there are theories that combine several aspects of science, the Instinct Theory of Motivation is one (and perhaps the only one) that gives a complete emphasis on the biological approach to motivation.
There are different theories about what constitutes and creates motivation. I’ve selected the most well-known ones and summarised them here. I looked up several resources for each and created a short description, as well as practical implications on the workfloor. I can’t claim absolute correctness or completeness – this is not an academic but an independent publication – but I dare say I’ve come pretty close.
• Need Theories
Need theories revolve around the fulfillment of an internal state, that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. These theorie form the basic foundations of motivation theories, and are the most straightforward. There are three main needs theories.
– Maslow’s Pyramid Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s theory states that people have a pyramide hierarchy of needs that they will satisfy from bottom to top. There are deficiency needs, that will stifle any other movement if they’re not satisfied, and growth needs, that can be progressively satisfied once the basics have been covered.
– Alderfer’s ERG Model: Alderfer’s model condenses Maslow’s five human needs into three categories: Existence (material and physiological), Relatedness (social and external esteem) and Growth (internal esteem and self actualisation).
– McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory: McClelland’s acquired needs theory states that an individual’s specific needs are acquired over time according to one’s life experiences. He described three types of motivational need: achievement motivation (n-ach), authority/power motivation (n-pow) an affiliation motivation (n-affil).
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